Error: the entity type requires a primary key

c# entity-framework-core wpf

Question

I would like to expand the question asked on this thread

Binding listbox to observablecollection

by giving it an ability to persistent the data. The structure is mostly the same except I installed Entity Framework Core, created a DbContext class to hold the records. I added a button to save the dataset to SQL Server. I did not encounter the compiling error but when I attempted to save the data in the database I got this run time exception:

Message=The entity type 'Fruit' requires a primary key to be defined.

The whole exception in its entirety is listed below

System.InvalidOperationException was unhandled
HResult=-2146233079
Message=The entity type 'Fruit' requires a primary key to be defined.
Source=Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore
StackTrace:
at Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Internal.ModelValidator.ShowError(String message)
at Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Internal.ModelValidator.EnsureNonNullPrimaryKeys(IModel model)
at Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Internal.ModelValidator.Validate(IModel model)
at Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Internal.RelationalModelValidator.Validate(IModel model)
at Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Infrastructure.ModelSource.CreateModel(DbContext context, IConventionSetBuilder conventionSetBuilder, IModelValidator validator)
at Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Infrastructure.ModelSource.<>c__DisplayClass14_0.b__0(Object k)
at System.Collections.Concurrent.ConcurrentDictionary2.GetOrAdd(TKey key, Func2 valueFactory)
at Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Infrastructure.ModelSource.GetModel(DbContext context, IConventionSetBuilder conventionSetBuilder, IModelValidator validator)
at Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Internal.DbContextServices.CreateModel()
at Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Internal.LazyRef1.get_Value()
at Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Internal.DbContextServices.get_Model()
at Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Infrastructure.EntityFrameworkServiceCollectionExtensions.<>c.<AddEntityFramework>b__0_6(IServiceProvider p)
at Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection.ServiceLookup.CallSiteRuntimeResolver.VisitFactoryService(FactoryService factoryService, ServiceProvider provider)
at Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection.ServiceLookup.CallSiteVisitor
2.VisitCallSite(IServiceCallSite callSite, TArgument argument)
at Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection.ServiceLookup.CallSiteRuntimeResolver.VisitScoped(ScopedCallSite scopedCallSite, ServiceProvider provider)
at Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection.ServiceLookup.CallSiteVisitor2.VisitCallSite(IServiceCallSite callSite, TArgument argument)
at Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection.ServiceLookup.CallSiteRuntimeResolver.VisitConstructor(ConstructorCallSite constructorCallSite, ServiceProvider provider)
at Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection.ServiceLookup.CallSiteVisitor
2.VisitCallSite(IServiceCallSite callSite, TArgument argument)
at Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection.ServiceLookup.CallSiteRuntimeResolver.VisitScoped(ScopedCallSite scopedCallSite, ServiceProvider provider)
at Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection.ServiceLookup.CallSiteVisitor2.VisitCallSite(IServiceCallSite callSite, TArgument argument)
at Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection.ServiceProvider.<>c__DisplayClass16_0.<RealizeService>b__0(ServiceProvider provider)
at Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection.ServiceProvider.GetService(Type serviceType)
at Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection.ServiceProviderServiceExtensions.GetService[T](IServiceProvider provider)
at Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Infrastructure.AccessorExtensions.GetService[TService](IInfrastructure
1 accessor)
at Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.ChangeTracking.ChangeTracker.get_StateManager()
at Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.ChangeTracking.ChangeTracker.DetectChanges()
at Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.DbContext.TryDetectChanges()
at Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.DbContext.SaveChanges(Boolean acceptAllChangesOnSuccess)
at Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.DbContext.SaveChanges()
at Fruits.MainWindow.SaveFruitCommandBinding_Executed(Object sender, ExecutedRoutedEventArgs e) in D:\Frank\Test\Fruits\Fruits\MainWindow.xaml.cs:line 50
at System.Windows.Input.CommandBinding.OnExecuted(Object sender, ExecutedRoutedEventArgs e)
at System.Windows.Input.CommandManager.ExecuteCommandBinding(Object sender, ExecutedRoutedEventArgs e, CommandBinding commandBinding)
at System.Windows.Input.CommandManager.FindCommandBinding(CommandBindingCollection commandBindings, Object sender, RoutedEventArgs e, ICommand command, Boolean execute)
at System.Windows.Input.CommandManager.FindCommandBinding(Object sender, RoutedEventArgs e, ICommand command, Boolean execute)
at System.Windows.Input.CommandManager.OnExecuted(Object sender, ExecutedRoutedEventArgs e) at System.Windows.UIElement.OnExecutedThunk(Object sender, ExecutedRoutedEventArgs e) at System.Windows.Input.ExecutedRoutedEventArgs.InvokeEventHandler(Delegate genericHandler, Object target) at System.Windows.RoutedEventArgs.InvokeHandler(Delegate handler, Object target) at System.Windows.RoutedEventHandlerInfo.InvokeHandler(Object target, RoutedEventArgs routedEventArgs) at System.Windows.EventRoute.InvokeHandlersImpl(Object source, RoutedEventArgs args, Boolean reRaised) at System.Windows.UIElement.RaiseEventImpl(DependencyObject sender, RoutedEventArgs args) at System.Windows.UIElement.RaiseEvent(RoutedEventArgs args, Boolean trusted) at System.Windows.Input.RoutedCommand.ExecuteImpl(Object parameter, IInputElement target, Boolean userInitiated) at System.Windows.Input.RoutedCommand.ExecuteCore(Object parameter, IInputElement target, Boolean userInitiated) at MS.Internal.Commands.CommandHelpers.CriticalExecuteCommandSource(ICommandSource commandSource, Boolean userInitiated) at System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.ButtonBase.OnClick() at System.Windows.Controls.Button.OnClick() at System.Windows.Controls.Primitives.ButtonBase.OnMouseLeftButtonUp(MouseButtonEventArgs e) at System.Windows.UIElement.OnMouseLeftButtonUpThunk(Object sender, MouseButtonEventArgs e) at System.Windows.Input.MouseButtonEventArgs.InvokeEventHandler(Delegate genericHandler, Object genericTarget) at System.Windows.RoutedEventArgs.InvokeHandler(Delegate handler, Object target) at System.Windows.RoutedEventHandlerInfo.InvokeHandler(Object target, RoutedEventArgs routedEventArgs) at System.Windows.EventRoute.InvokeHandlersImpl(Object source, RoutedEventArgs args, Boolean reRaised) at System.Windows.UIElement.ReRaiseEventAs(DependencyObject sender, RoutedEventArgs args, RoutedEvent newEvent) at System.Windows.UIElement.OnMouseUpThunk(Object sender, MouseButtonEventArgs e) at System.Windows.Input.MouseButtonEventArgs.InvokeEventHandler(Delegate genericHandler, Object genericTarget) at System.Windows.RoutedEventArgs.InvokeHandler(Delegate handler, Object target) at System.Windows.RoutedEventHandlerInfo.InvokeHandler(Object target, RoutedEventArgs routedEventArgs) at System.Windows.EventRoute.InvokeHandlersImpl(Object source, RoutedEventArgs args, Boolean reRaised) at System.Windows.UIElement.RaiseEventImpl(DependencyObject sender, RoutedEventArgs args) at System.Windows.UIElement.RaiseTrustedEvent(RoutedEventArgs args) at System.Windows.UIElement.RaiseEvent(RoutedEventArgs args, Boolean trusted) at System.Windows.Input.InputManager.ProcessStagingArea() at System.Windows.Input.InputManager.ProcessInput(InputEventArgs input) at System.Windows.Input.InputProviderSite.ReportInput(InputReport inputReport) at System.Windows.Interop.HwndMouseInputProvider.ReportInput(IntPtr hwnd, InputMode mode, Int32 timestamp, RawMouseActions actions, Int32 x, Int32 y, Int32 wheel) at System.Windows.Interop.HwndMouseInputProvider.FilterMessage(IntPtr hwnd, WindowMessage msg, IntPtr wParam, IntPtr lParam, Boolean& handled) at System.Windows.Interop.HwndSource.InputFilterMessage(IntPtr hwnd, Int32 msg, IntPtr wParam, IntPtr lParam, Boolean& handled) at MS.Win32.HwndWrapper.WndProc(IntPtr hwnd, Int32 msg, IntPtr wParam, IntPtr lParam, Boolean& handled) at MS.Win32.HwndSubclass.DispatcherCallbackOperation(Object o) at System.Windows.Threading.ExceptionWrapper.InternalRealCall(Delegate callback, Object args, Int32 numArgs) at System.Windows.Threading.ExceptionWrapper.TryCatchWhen(Object source, Delegate callback, Object args, Int32 numArgs, Delegate catchHandler) at System.Windows.Threading.Dispatcher.LegacyInvokeImpl(DispatcherPriority priority, TimeSpan timeout, Delegate method, Object args, Int32 numArgs) at MS.Win32.HwndSubclass.SubclassWndProc(IntPtr hwnd, Int32 msg, IntPtr wParam, IntPtr lParam) at MS.Win32.UnsafeNativeMethods.DispatchMessage(MSG& msg) at System.Windows.Threading.Dispatcher.PushFrameImpl(DispatcherFrame frame) at System.Windows.Threading.Dispatcher.PushFrame(DispatcherFrame frame) at System.Windows.Application.RunDispatcher(Object ignore) at System.Windows.Application.RunInternal(Window window) at System.Windows.Application.Run(Window window) at System.Windows.Application.Run() at Fruits.App.Main() at System.AppDomain._nExecuteAssembly(RuntimeAssembly assembly, String[] args) at System.AppDomain.ExecuteAssembly(String assemblyFile, Evidence assemblySecurity, String[] args) at Microsoft.VisualStudio.HostingProcess.HostProc.RunUsersAssembly() at System.Threading.ThreadHelper.ThreadStart_Context(Object state) at System.Threading.ExecutionContext.RunInternal(ExecutionContext executionContext, ContextCallback callback, Object state, Boolean preserveSyncCtx) at System.Threading.ExecutionContext.Run(ExecutionContext executionContext, ContextCallback callback, Object state, Boolean preserveSyncCtx) at System.Threading.ExecutionContext.Run(ExecutionContext executionContext, ContextCallback callback, Object state) at System.Threading.ThreadHelper.ThreadStart() InnerException:

This is the updated class Fruit:

namespace Fruits.ViewModels
{
    [Table("Fruits")]
    public  class Fruit : ViewModelBase
    {
        #region Constractor
        public Fruit()
        {
        }
        public Fruit(string name, String clrString)
        {
            FruitName = name;
            //  Parse colors like so: (Color)ColorConverter.ConvertFromString(clrString);
            FruitColor = clrString;
            _id = Guid.NewGuid();
        }
        public Fruit(string name, Color clr)
        {
            FruitName = name;
            FruitColor = clr.ToString();
            _id = Guid.NewGuid();
        }

        #endregion

        #region Properties
        private Guid _id;
        [Key]
        public Guid ID
        {
            get { return _id; }
        }

        #region FruitName
        private string _fruitname;
        public string FruitName
        {
            get
            {
                return _fruitname;
            }
            set
            {
                if (_fruitname != value)
                {
                    _fruitname = value;
                    OnPropertyChanged("FruitName");
                }
            }
        }
        #endregion

        #region FruitColor
        private String _fruitcolor;
        public String FruitColor
        {
            get
            {
                return _fruitcolor;
            }
            set
            {
                if (_fruitcolor != value)
                {
                    _fruitcolor = value;
                    OnPropertyChanged("FruitColor");
                }
            }
        }
        #endregion

        #region Selected Property
        private bool _isSelected = true;
        //  NOTE: I renamed this property
        public bool IsSelected
        {
            get
            {
                return _isSelected;
            }
            set
            {
                if (_isSelected != value)
                {
                    _isSelected = value;
                    OnPropertyChanged("IsSelected");
                }
            }
        }
        #endregion

        #endregion
    }
}

The updated MainWindows xaml (to add a save button)

<Window x:Class="Fruits.MainWindow"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
        xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
        xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
        xmlns:local="clr-namespace:Fruits"
        mc:Ignorable="d"
        Title="MainWindow" Height="350" Width="525">
    <Window.Resources>
        <RoutedCommand x:Key="AddFruit" />
        <RoutedCommand x:Key='SaveFruit' />
    </Window.Resources>
    <Window.CommandBindings>
        <CommandBinding Command='{StaticResource AddFruit}'
                                        Executed='AddFruitCommandBinding_Executed'
                                        CanExecute='AddFruitCommandBinding_CanExecute' />
        <CommandBinding Command='{StaticResource SaveFruit}'
                                        Executed='SaveFruitCommandBinding_Executed'
                                        CanExecute='SaveFruitCommandBinding_CanExecute' />
    </Window.CommandBindings>
    <Grid>
        <StackPanel Orientation='Vertical'
                                Margin='10'>
            <CheckBox IsChecked="{Binding ShowSelectedFruitOnly}">Selected Fruit Only</CheckBox>
            <ListBox x:Name='MyList'
                             ItemsSource="{Binding FruitsView}"
                             ItemTemplate='{StaticResource FruitTemp}' />
            <StackPanel Orientation="Horizontal"
                                    Margin="0,10,0,0">
                <Label Width="100">New Name:</Label>
                <TextBox Width="200"
                                 Text="{Binding NewFruitName, Mode=TwoWay }" 
                                 />
            </StackPanel>
            <StackPanel Orientation="Horizontal"
                                    Margin="0,10,0,0">
                <Label Width="100">New Color:</Label>
                <!--<TextBox Width="200"
                                 Text="{Binding NewFruitColor, UpdateSourceTrigger=PropertyChanged}" />-->
                <TextBox Width="200"
                                 Text="{Binding NewFruitColor, Mode=TwoWay }" />

                <ContentControl Style="{StaticResource ColorSwatch}"
                                                Margin="2"
                                                VerticalAlignment="Center"
                                                Content="{Binding NewFruitColor}" />
            </StackPanel>
            <StackPanel Orientation='Horizontal'>
            <Button x:Name='AddFruit'
                            Height='auto'
                            Width='auto'
                            Content='Add New Fruit 2'
                            Margin='0,10,0,0'
                            Command='{StaticResource AddFruit}' />
                <Button x:Name='SaveFruit'
                                Height='auto'
                                Width='auto'
                                Content='Save Fruit'
                                Margin='100,10,0,0'
                                Command='{StaticResource SaveFruit}' />
            </StackPanel>
        </StackPanel>
    </Grid>
</Window>

and my code behind the mainwindows (added handler)

using Fruits.ViewModels;
using System;
using System.Windows;
using System.Windows.Input;

namespace Fruits
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Interaction logic for MainWindow.xaml
    /// </summary>
    public partial class MainWindow : Window
    {
        public MainWindow()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
            DataContext = new MainViewModel();

            ViewModel.AddNewFruit("Jackfruit", "Yellow");
            ViewModel.AddNewFruit("Watermelon", "ForestGreen");
            ViewModel.AddNewFruit("Apple", "Red");
            ViewModel.AddNewFruit("Banana", "Yellow");
            ViewModel.AddNewFruit("Orange", "DeepSkyBlue");

            //ViewModel.Fruits[0].IsSelected = false;
            //ViewModel.Fruits[1].IsSelected = false;

            ViewModel.FruitsView.Refresh();
        }

        public MainViewModel ViewModel { get { return DataContext as MainViewModel; } }

        private void AddFruitCommandBinding_Executed(object sender, ExecutedRoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            ViewModel.AddNewFruit();
        }

        private void AddFruitCommandBinding_CanExecute(object sender, CanExecuteRoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            e.CanExecute =
                    ViewModel != null
                    && !String.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(ViewModel.NewFruitName)
                    && !String.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(ViewModel.NewFruitColor)
                    ;
        }

        private void SaveFruitCommandBinding_Executed(object sender, ExecutedRoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            using (var db=new FruitDbContext())
            {
                db.SaveChanges();
            }
        }

        private void SaveFruitCommandBinding_CanExecute(object sender, CanExecuteRoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            e.CanExecute = true;
        }
    }
}

My newly added dbContext:

namespace Fruits.ViewModels
{
    public class FruitDbContext:DbContext
    {
        public DbSet<Fruit> Fruits { get; set; }
        protected override void OnConfiguring(DbContextOptionsBuilder optionBuilder)
        {
            optionBuilder.UseSqlServer(@"Server = xxx; Database=Test; Integrated Security = True");
        }
    }
}

Other classes remain unchanged, but I listed them anyway:

ViewModelBase

    namespace Fruits.ViewModels
    {
        public  class ViewModelBase : INotifyPropertyChanged
        {
            public event PropertyChangedEventHandler PropertyChanged;
            public void OnPropertyChanged(string name)
            {
                if (PropertyChanged != null)
                {
                    PropertyChanged(this, new PropertyChangedEventArgs(name));
                }
            }
        }
    }

ViewModel

using System;
using System.Collections.ObjectModel;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Windows.Data;
using System.Windows.Media;

namespace Fruits.ViewModels
{

    #region MainViewModel Class
    public class MainViewModel : ViewModelBase
    {
        public  MainViewModel()
        {
            Fruits = new ObservableCollection<Fruit>();

        }
        public ICollectionView FruitsView { get; private set; }

        #region ShowSelectedFruitOnly Property
        private bool _showSelectedFruitOnly = true;
        public bool ShowSelectedFruitOnly
        {
            get { return _showSelectedFruitOnly; }
            set
            {
                if (value != _showSelectedFruitOnly)
                {
                    _showSelectedFruitOnly = value;
                    FruitsView.Refresh();
                    OnPropertyChanged("ShowSelectedFruitOnly");
                }
            }
        }
        #endregion ShowSelectedFruitOnly Property

        #region Add Methods
        public void AddNewFruit()
        {
            Fruits.Add(new Fruit(NewFruitName, NewFruitColor));

            NewFruitName = "";
            NewFruitColor = "";
        }
        public void AddNewFruit(string name, string color)
        {
            Fruits.Add(new Fruit(name, color));
        }
        public void AddNewFruit(string name, Color color)
        {
            Fruits.Add(new Fruit(name, color));
        }
        #endregion Add Methods

        #region NewFruitName Property
        private String _newFruitName = default(String);
        public String NewFruitName
        {
            get { return _newFruitName; }
            set
            {
                if (value != _newFruitName)
                {
                    _newFruitName = value;
                    OnPropertyChanged("NewFruitName");
                }
            }
        }
        #endregion NewFruitName Property

        #region NewFruitColor Property
        private String _newFruitColor = default(String);
        public String NewFruitColor
        {
            get { return _newFruitColor; }
            set
            {
                if (value != _newFruitColor)
                {
                    _newFruitColor = value;
                    OnPropertyChanged("NewFruitColor");
                }
            }
        }
        #endregion NewFruitColor Property

        #region Fruits Property
        private static ObservableCollection<Fruit> _fruits;
        public ObservableCollection<Fruit> Fruits
        {
            get { return _fruits; }
            private set
            {
                if (value != _fruits)
                {
                    _fruits = value;

                    FruitsView = CollectionViewSource.GetDefaultView(Fruits);

                    FruitsView.Filter = FruitFilterPredicate;
                    FruitsView.Refresh();

                    OnPropertyChanged("Fruits");
                }
            }
        }
        protected bool FruitFilterPredicate(Object o)
        {
            if (ShowSelectedFruitOnly)
            {
                return (o as Fruit).IsSelected;
            }

            return true;
        }
        #endregion Fruits Property
    }

    #endregion MainViewModel Class
}

App.xaml

<Application x:Class="Fruits.App"
             xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
             xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
             xmlns:local="clr-namespace:Fruits"
             StartupUri="MainWindow.xaml">
    <Application.Resources>
        <Style x:Key="ColorSwatch"
                     TargetType="ContentControl">
            <Setter Property="Width"
                            Value="24" />
            <Setter Property="Height"
                            Value="24" />
            <Setter Property="IsTabStop"
                            Value="false" />
            <Setter Property="ContentTemplate">
                <Setter.Value>
                    <DataTemplate>
                        <Rectangle HorizontalAlignment="Stretch"
                                             VerticalAlignment="Stretch"
                                             Stroke="Gray"
                                             StrokeThickness="1">
                            <Rectangle.Fill>
                                <SolidColorBrush Color="{Binding}" />
                            </Rectangle.Fill>
                        </Rectangle>
                    </DataTemplate>
                </Setter.Value>
            </Setter>
        </Style>

        <DataTemplate x:Key='FruitTemp'>
            <StackPanel Orientation='Horizontal'
                                    Margin='5'>
                <TextBlock x:Name='tbName'
                                     Text='{Binding FruitName}'
                                     Margin='10,0,0,0'
                                     Width='100' />
                <TextBlock x:Name='tbColor'
                                     Text='{Binding FruitColor}'
                                     Margin='10,0,0,0'
                                     Width='100' />
                <ContentControl Width="16"
                                                Height="16"
                                                Style="{StaticResource ColorSwatch}"
                                                Content="{Binding FruitColor}" />
                <!-- The problem here was you were trying to bind Checked, an event, 
                instead if IsChecked, a bool? property. 
                -->
                <CheckBox x:Name='cbSelected'
                                    Content='Selected'
                                    Margin='10,0,0,0'
                                    IsChecked='{Binding IsSelected}' />
            </StackPanel>
        </DataTemplate>
    </Application.Resources>
</Application>

The structure of my project

enter image description here

My table in SQL Server:

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[Fruits]
(
    [ID] [uniqueidentifier] NOT NULL,
    [FruitName] [nvarchar](50) NULL,
    [FruitColor] [nvarchar](50) NULL,
    [IsSelected] [nvarchar](1) NULL,

     CONSTRAINT [PK_Fruit] 
        PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED ([ID] ASC)
                    WITH (PAD_INDEX = OFF, STATISTICS_NORECOMPUTE = OFF, 
                          IGNORE_DUP_KEY = OFF, ALLOW_ROW_LOCKS = ON, 
                          ALLOW_PAGE_LOCKS = ON) ON [PRIMARY]
) ON [PRIMARY]

Please advise why the message said there was no primary key while it does exist

1
57
5/23/2017 12:25:45 PM

Accepted Answer

This exception message doesn't mean it requires a primary key to be defined in your database, it means it requires a primary key to be defined in your class.

Although you've attempted to do so:

private Guid _id;
[Key]
public Guid ID
{
    get { return _id; }
}

This has no effect, as Entity Framework ignores read-only properties. It has to: when it retrieves a Fruits record from the database, it constructs a Fruit object, and then calls the property setters for each mapped property. That's never going to work for read-only properties.

You need Entity Framework to be able to set the value of ID. This means the property needs to have a setter.

107
4/19/2017 6:34:51 PM

Popular Answer

I came here with similar error:

System.InvalidOperationException: 'The entity type 'MyType' requires a primary key to be defined.'

After reading answer by hvd, realized I had simply forgotten to make my key property 'public'. This..

namespace MyApp.Models.Schedule
{
    public class MyType
    {
        [Key]
        int Id { get; set; }

        // ...

Should be this..

namespace MyApp.Models.Schedule
{
    public class MyType
    {
        [Key]
        public int Id { get; set; }  // must be public!

        // ...


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